Histology Guide virtual histology laboratory

250 Virtual
Microscope Slides

200 Micrographs

Quizzes

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of Tissues and
Structures

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Histology Guide

Chapter 6 - Nervous Tissue

Questions are provided for the most important slides of this chapter. This quiz only covers material that one would be expected to discuss in a histology laboratory.

Nervous tissue is composed of two major types of cells? [+]

  • Neurons - structural and functional unit of the nervous system
  • Neuroglia (or glial cells) - supporting cells for neurons

Nervous system is divided anatomically into two major components: [+]

  • Central nervous system (CNS) – consists of the brain and spinal cord
  • Peripheral nervous system (PNS) – all nervous tissue outside the CNS

Name the three parts of a neuron and their functions: [+]

  • Cell body (or perikaryon, soma) – processes and integrates signals from dendrites
  • Dendrites – branched processes that receive stimuli and conduct impulses toward the cell body
  • Axon – single axon that conducts nerve impulses to other cells through synapses

Three structural classifications of neurons based on their processes: [+]

  • Bipolar - found in special sensory organs, like olfactory and vision
  • Pseudounipolar (or unipolar) - sensory neurons found in dorsal root (or spinal) ganglia
  • Multipolar - most common type of neuron

Part 01

Name the four types of glial cells in the CNS and their functions: [+]

  • Astrocytes – many roles in support and nourishment of neurons
  • Oligodendrocytes – insulate axons and form myelin sheaths around more than axon
  • Microglia – specialized macrophages
  • Ependymal cells – line the ventricles in the brain and the central canal of the spinal cord - produce and circulate cerebrospinal fluid
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Nerve 01

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Nerve 02

Part 02

What is a cluster of nerve cell bodies outside the CNS called? [+]

Peripheral ganglia

What is another name for neurons with cell bodies in ganglia? [+]

Ganglion cells

Name the two types of glial cells in the PNS: [+]

  • Schwann cells – structure depends whether the axons are unmyelinated/myelinated
    • Wrap multiple, unmyelinated axons in cytoplasmic folds
    • Wrap a single, myelinated axon within a myelin sheath
  • Satellite (or capsule) cells – cells that support neurons in ganglia
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Nerve 03

Part 03

Autonomic nervous system is divided into two subdivisions: [+]

  • Sympathetic nervous system – involved in functions requiring quick responses (i.e., stress, impending danger, and "fight or flight" response)
  • Parasympathetic nervous system – regulates functions of body organs, blood vessels, and smooth muscle (i.e., "rest and digest" response)

How can you differentiate sympathetic ganglia from parasympathetic ganglia? [+]

Parasympathetic ganglia are nearby/within the organ they innervate
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Nerve 04

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Nerve 05

Part 04

Bundles of axons in the PNS that extend to and from the CNS? [+]

Peripheral nerves
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Nerve 06

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Nerve 07